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Evidence of Electoral Fraud in the 2004 U.S. Presidential Election

A Reader

by Michael Keefer

www.globalresearch.ca 6 November 2004

The URL of this article is: http://globalresearch.ca/articles/KEE411B.html

Professor Michael Keefer of Guelph University, Ontario, provides an extensive bibliography on the issue of Electoral Fraud.


[In cases where the same article has been published at more than one website, multiple URLs are listed.]

Allen, David. "Inside An E-Voting Whitewash Conference Call." Scoop (23 August 2003), http://www.scoop.co.nz/mason/stories/HL0308/S00175.htm .

Byrne, John. "Kerry seen as presidential victor in early exit polls." The Blue Lemur (2 November 2004, 3:15 p.m.), http://www.bluelemur.com/index.php?p=386 .

CalTech/MIT Voting Technology Project. "Immediate Steps to Avoid Lost Votes in the 2004 Presidential Election: Recommendations for the Election Assistance Commission." July 2004. http://www.vote.caltech.edu/Reports/index.html .

Cardinale, Matthew. "A Genealogy of Votergate Media Coverage 2004: Through the Eyes of Googlenews." OpEdNews.com (10 November 2004), http://www.opednews.com/cardinale_111004_votergate_media.htm .

Chin, Larry. "The Stolen Election of 2004: welcome back to hell." Online Journal (5 November 2004), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/110504Chin/110504chin.html ; Centre for Research on Globalization (5 November 2004), http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/CHI411B.html .

Collier, James M., and Kenneth F. Collier. Votescam: The Stealing of America. Victoria House Press, 1992. ISBN 0963416308.

Collier, Victoria. "Your stolen vote—the missing piece of the puzzle." May 2000; republished by Online Journal (8 February 2001), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/020801Collier/020801collier.html .

------. "Computerized Election Fraud in America: A Brief History." VoteScam (25 October 2003), http://www.votescam.com/abriefhistory.php .

Conover, Bev. "Once again, the media try to con the people into believing Bush won." Online Journal (5 April 2001), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/040501Conover/040501conover.html .

------. "Florida’s ‘fixed it’ farce." Online Journal (11 May 2001), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/051101Conover/051101conover.html .

------. "Computerized voting systems cannot be made secure." Online Journal (20 October 2003), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/102003Conover/102003conover.html .

------. "Voting: When low-tech beats high-tech." Online Journal (25 June 2004), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/062504Conover/062504conover.html .

Democratic Investigative Staff, House Committee on the Judiciary. How to Make Over One Million Votes Disappear: Electoral Sleight of Hand in the 2000 Presidential Election. A Fifty-State Report Prepared for Rep. John Conyers, Jr. (Ranking Member, House Committee on the Judiciary; Dean, Congressional Black Caucus. 122 pp. Washington, DC: U.S. House of Representatives, August 20, 2001. http://www.electionreport.pdf .

Dopp, Kathy. "Surprising Pattern of Florida’s Election Results." Ustogether,org (3 November 2004), http://www.ustogether.org/Florida_Election.htm . For further analysis and graphic representation of Kathy Dopp’s data, see http://www.ustogether.org/election04/FloridaDataStats.htm , and http://www.rubberbug.com/temp/Florida2004chart.htm .

Drobny, Sheldon. "Votergate 2004: We Don’t Need Paper to Prove Fraud, But We Do Need Money and Leadership, NOW." OpEdNews.com (9 November 2004), http://www.opednews.com/drobny_110904_election_investigation.htm ; Centre for Research on Globalization (10 November 2004), http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/DRO411A.html .

Equal Justice Foundation. Vote Fraud and Election Issues. Last updated 27 September 2004. http://www.ejfi.org/Voting/Voting.htm#fraud .

"Exit Polls vs. Actual Results." http://www.bandsagainstbush.org/cgi-bin/archives/exit_polls.gif ; also at http://www.bandsagainstbush.org/cgi-bin/archives/000117.html .

Fitrakis, Bob. "Diebold, electronic voting and the vast right-wing conspiracy." The Free Press (24 February 2004), http://www.freepress.org/columns/display/3/2004/834 .

------, and Harvey Wasserman. "Diebold’s Political Machine." MotherJones.com (5 March 2004), http://www.motherjones.com/commentary/columns/2004/03/03_200.html .

------. "Death of a patriot: no more." The Free Press (17 March 2004), http://www.freepress.org/columns/display/3/2004/853 .

------. "E-Voting: The new battle hymn of the republic." Online Journal (11 September 2004), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/091104Fitrakis/091104fitrakis.html .

------. "Did Kerry Concede Too Soon?" The Free Press (5 November 2004), http://www.freepress.org/columns/display/3/2004/981 ; Centre for Research on Globalization (6 November 2004), http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/FIT411A.html .

------. "None dare call it voter suppression and fraud." The Free Press (7 November 2004), http://www.freepress.org/columns/display/3/2004/983 .

------. "And so the sorting and discarding of Kerry votes begins." The Free Press (10 November 2004), http://www.freepress.org/columns/display/3/2004/985 .

Harris, Bev. Black Box Voting: Ballot Tampering in the 21st Century. Renton, WA: Talion Publishing/Black Box Voting, 2003. ISBN 1890916900. Free internet version available at http://www.blackboxvoting.org .

------. "Inside a U.S. Election Vote Counting Program." Scoop (8 July 2003), http://www.scoop.co.nz/mason/stories/HL0307/S00065.htm ; Truthout (July 2003), http://www.truthout.org/docs_03/voting.shtml .

------. Voting industry insiders hold secret meeting to hire PR firm to sell electronic voting to public." Online Journal (26 August 2003), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/082604Harris/082604harris.html .

------. "The Tampering of Electronic Voting Systems on November 2nd." BlackBoxVoting (7 November 2004), http://www.blackboxvoting.org ; Centre for Research on Globalization (8 November 2004), http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/HAR411A.html .

Hartmann, Thom. "If You Want to Win an Election, Just Control the Voting Machines." CommonDreams.org (31 January 2003). http://www.commondreams.org/views03/0131-01.htm ; Scoop (31 January 2003), http://www.scoop.co.nz/mason/stories/HL0302/S00009.htm ; Online Journal (6 February 2003), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/020603Hartmann/020603hartmann.html .

------. "Now your vote is the property of a private corporation." SmirkingChimp.com (11 March 2003), http://www.smirkingchimp.com/print.php?sid=10536 ; Online Journal (13 March 2003), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/031303Hartmann/031303hartmann.html .

------. "Evidence Mounts that the Vote May Have Been Hacked." CommonDreams.org (6 November 2004), http://www.commondreams.org/views04/1106-30.htm .

"How George W. Bush Won the 2004 Presidential Election." Infernal Press (25 June 2003), http://www.infernalpress.com/Columns/election.html ; Centre for Research on Globalization (15 July 2003), http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/INF307A.html .

Internet Policy Institute. Report of the National Workshop on Internet Voting: Issues and Research Agenda. March 2001. 62 pp. Sponsored by the National Science Foundation. Conducted in cooperation with the University of Maryland and hosted by the Freedom Forum. http://www.nsfe-voterprt.pdf .

Jones, Douglas W. Voting and Elections. Course on Computers in Voting, 22C:196, Fall 2001, Department of Computer Science, University of Iowa. http://www.cs.uiowa.edu/~jones/voting .

------. "The Diebold AccuVote TS Should be Decertified." ESENEX Security Symposium, Washington DC (6 August 2003), http://www.cs.uiowa.edu/~jones/voting/dieboldusenix.html .

"Journalist [Lynn Landes] seeks temporary restraining orders against use of voting machines & absentee ballots." Online Journal (18 October 2004), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/101804NewsFlash/101804newsflash.html .

Keefer, Michael. "Footprints of Electoral Fraud: The November 2 Exit Poll Scam." Centre for Research on Globalization (5 November 2004), http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/KEE411A.html ; Autonomy & Solidarity (5 November 2004), http://www.auto_sol.tao.ca . Other observers have provided graphic confirmation from CNN’s screens of the tampering with exit poll percentages noted in this article. See "Why Did CNN Change Their Exit Poll Data for Ohio After 1:00 a.m.?" Buzzflash (3 November 2004), http://www.buzzflash.com/analysis/04/11/ana04025.html ; and "Proof CNN is tampering with the election to cover the fraud." DemocraticUnderground (3 November 2004), http://www.democraticunderground.com/discuss/duboard.php?az=show_mesg&forum=132&topic_id=1290765&mesg_id=1295180&page= .

Kocher, Paul, and Bruce Schneier. "Insider Risks in Elections." Inside Risks 169, CACM 47, 7 (July 2004), http://www.csl.sri.com/users/neumann/insiderisks04.html .

Landes, Lynn. "2002 elections: Republican voting machines, election irregularities, and ‘way-off’ polling results." Online Journal (8 November 2002), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/110802Landes/110802landes.html .

------. "Mission impossible: Federal observers & voting machines." Online Journal (26 November 2002), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/112602Landes/112602landes.html .

------. "Voting machines violate Constitution: Who will launch legal challenge?" Online Journal (15 April 2003), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/041503Landes/041503landes.html .

------. "Offshore company captures online military vote." Onlne Journal (21 July 2003), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/072103Landes/072103landes.html .

------. "Voting machine fiasco: SAIC, VoteHere and Diebold." Online Journal (20 August 2003), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/082003Landes/082003landes.html .

------. "Internet Voting—The End of Democracy?" 27 August 2003. http://www.ecotalk.org/InternetVoting.htm .

------. "Internet voting: The end of democracy?" Online Journal (4 September 2003), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/090403Landes/090403landes.html .

------. "Republicans and Brits will count California’s recall votes." Online Journal (6 October 2003), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/100603Landes/100603landes.html .

------. "NIST ignores scientific method for voting technology." Online Journal (16 December 2003), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/121603Landes/121603landes.html .

------. Election Fraud and Irregularities—BY YEAR. http://www.ecotalk.org/VotingMachineErrors.htm .

------. Voting Systems Orgs and Companies. http://www.ecotalk.org/VotingMachineCompanies.htm .

------. "Democrats send mixed signals in voting technology debate." Online Journal (29 January 2004), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/012904Landes/012904landes.html .

------. "Questions mount over New Hampshire’s primary." Online Journal (11 February 2004), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/021104Landes/021104landes.html .

------. "Faking democracy: Americans don’t vote, machines do, & ballot printers can’t fix that." Online Journal (2 April 2004), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/040704Landes/040704landes.html .

------. "Two voting companies and two brothers will count 80 percent of U.S. election using both scanners & touchscreens." Online Journal (28 April 2004), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/042804Landes/042804landes.html .

------. "Federal commission nixes talk of paper-only elections; stacks panels with proponents of paperless touchscreens." Online Journal (12 May 2004), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/051204Landes/051204landes.html .

------. "Could the Associated Press rig the election?" Online Journal (23 October 2004), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/102304Landes/102304landes.html .

------. "If this election is stolen, will it be by enough to stop a recount?" Online Journal (31 October 2004), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/103104Landes/103104landes.html .

Leopold, Jason. "Electronic voting minus paper trails makes it easy to rig elections." Online Journal (4 September 2003), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/090403Leopard/090403leopard.html .

Madsen, Wayne. "Grand Theft Election: Karl Rove’s turd droppings all over this one." Online Journal (5 November 2004), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/110504Madsen/110504madsen.html ; Centre for Research on Globalization (5 November 2004), http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/MAD411A.html .

Mercuri, Rebecca. Electronic Vote Tabulation: Checks and Balances. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Computer and Information Systems, School of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Pennsylvania, 2001. Available from http://www.umi.com (Thesis # 3003665).

------. Electronic Voting. http://www.notablesoftware.com/evote.html .

------. Press Release (24 September 2002): "MIT vs. Mercuri. Rebecca Mercuri rebuts recent MIT/CalTech voting systems analysis and calls for moratorium on new electronic balloting equipment purchases." http://www.notablesoftware.com/Papers/MITvsMercuri.html .

------. "Florida 2002: Sluggish Systems, Vanishing Votes." Inside Risks 149, CACM 45, 11 (November 2002), http://www.csl.sri.com/users/neumann/insiderisks.html#149 .

------, and Peter G. Neumann. "Verification for Electronic Balloting Systems." Chapter 3 of Secure Electronic Voting, ed. Dimitris Gritzalis. Advances in Information Security, vol. 7. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002. ISBN 1402073011.

Moore, Steve. "E-Democracy: Stealing the Election in 2004." Global Outlook 8 (Summer 2004); Centre for Research on Globalization (11 July 2004), http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/MOO407A.html .

Norr, Henry. "The Risks of Touch-Screen Balloting." San Francisco Chronicle (4 December 2000), http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2000/12/04/BU91811.DTL .

Otter, Faun. "Vote Fraud—Exit Polls Vs Actuals." Scoop (4 November 2004), http://www.scoop.co.nz/mason/stories/HL0411/S00072.htm .

Palast, Greg. "Florida Computers Snatch Thousands of Votes from Kerry." Truthout (26 October 2004), http://www.truthout.org/docs_04/102904X.shtml ; also published under the title "Florida’s Computers Have Already Counted Thousands of Votes for George W. Bush." Commondreams.org (28 October 2004), http://www.commondreams.org/head;ines04/1028-02.htm .

------. "Electoral Fraud, Ethnic Cleansing of Voter Rolls, An Election Spoiled Rotten." TomPaine.com (1 November 2004), http://www.tompaine.com ; Centre for Research on Globalization (4 November 2004), http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/PAL411A.html .

------. "Kerry won… Here are the facts." TomPaine.com (4 November 2004), http://www.tompaine.com/articles/kerry_won_.php ; CommonDreams.org (4 November 2004), http://www.commondreams.org/views04/1104-36.htm ; Centre for Research on Globalization (4 November 2004), http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/PAL411B.html ; Online Journal (5 November 2004), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/110504Palast/110504palast.html .

Parry, Sam. "Bush’s ‘Incredible’ Vote Tallies." Consortium News (9 November 2004), http://www.consortiumnews.com/2004/110904.html ; Centre for Research on Globalization (9 November 2004), http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/PAR411B.html .

Penn, Thomas. "Can we trust the vote count anywhere? In any race? In any election?" Online Journal (14 November 2002), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/111402Penn/111402penn.html .

Pitt, William Rivers. "Desperate Measures." Truthout (20 October 2004), http://www.truthout.org/docs_04/102004A.shtml .

Quirk, Kevin. "Something amiss in Ohio." Online Journal (5 November 2004), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/110504Quirk/110504quirk.html .

Redman, Colleen. "Voting machine voodoo: Democracy at risk." Online Journal (19 November 2003), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/111903Redman/111903redman.html .

Saltman, Roy G. Accuracy, Integrity, and Security in Computerized Vote-Tallying. NBS Special Publication 500-158. Institute for Computer Sciences and Technology, National Bureau of Standards. Gaithersburg, MD 20899, August 1988. http://www.itl.nist.gov/lab/specpubs/500-158.htm .

Schneier, Bruce. "Voting and Technology." Crypto-Gram Newsletter (15 December 2000), http://www.schneier.com/crypto-gram-0012.html .

Sludge, C. D. " Sludge Report #154: Bigger Than Watergate! How to Rig an Election in the United States." Scoop (8 July 2003), http://www.scoop.co.nz/mason/stories/HL0307/S00064.htm ; Truthout (July 2003), http://www.truthout.org/docs_03/voting.shtml ; also published under the title "Bald-Faced Lies About Black Box Voting Machines and the Truth About the Diebold Rob-Georgia File." Equal Justice Foundation (July 2003), http://www.ejfi.org/Voting/Voting-25.htm#rig .

------. "Sludge #156: SAIC Connected to E-Voting Whitewash." Scoop (23 Ayugust 2003), http://www.scoop.co.nz/mason/stories/HL0308/S00173.htm .

------. "Sludge Report #157: The ITAA, The Election Center, & Doug Lewis." Scoop (23 August 2003), http://www.scoop.co.nz/mason/stories/HL0308/S00174.htm .

Solnit, David. "Massive Vote Suppression and Corruption in Ohio." Centre for Research on Globalization (3 November 2004), http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/SOL411A.html .

Sperry, Mac. "Stopping the vote theft—urgent—drop all else." Online Journal (25 October 2003), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/102503Sperry/102503sperry.html .

Thompson, Ken. "Reflections on Trusting Trust." Communications of the ACM 27.8 (August 1984): 761-63. http://www.acm.org/classics/sep95 .

Thoreau, Jackson. "Never say Die-bold: So you don’t think the Bush campaign stole this election? Think again." Online Journal (5 November 2004), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/110505Thoreau/110505thoreau.html .

Wade, Anthony. "Diversionary New Tactics, Votergate 2004." OpEdNews.com (9 November 2004), http://www.opednews.com/bloganthonywade.htm .

Zeller, Tom. "Ready or Not (and Maybe Not), Electronic Voting Goes National." The New York Times (19 September 2004); Truthout (20 September 2004), http://www.truthout.org/docs_04/092004L.shtml .


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