Centre for Research on Globalisation
Centre de recherche sur la mondialisation


Comparing Mythologies: the US versus Ukraine

Election Fraud in the 2004 U.S. Presidential Election

by Michael Keefer

www.globalresearch.ca 26 November 2004

The URL of this article is: http://globalresearch.ca/articles/411A.html

Evidence of Fraud in the 2004 U.S. Presidential Election: An Expanded Reading List


i. ‘Let us compare mythologies’: Presidential Elections in the U.S. and Ukraine

Imagine the sensation that would ensue if a United States Senator were to publicly declare, less than three weeks after the 2004 U.S. presidential election, that "It is now apparent that a concerted and forceful program of election-day fraud and abuse was enacted with either the leadership or co-operation of governmental authorities." The story would make banner headlines around the world.

As a matter of fact, on November 22, 2004, BBC News attributed these very words to Republican Senator Richard Lugar. But Lugar was speaking in his capacity as Chairman of the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee—and he was referring, not to the U.S. presidential election of November 2, but to the Ukrainian presidential election of November 21, 2004.

The available data suggests that the Ukrainian election was indeed corrupt, and its results fraudulent. Viktor Yanukovych, the candidate favoured by Ukraine’s Russian neighbours, was declared the winner, with 49.4 percent of the vote to the Western-leaning Viktor Yushchenko’s 46.7 percent. But Yushchenko and his supporters have cried foul, and have been supported by most Western observers and commentators. A principal reason for challenging the election is that the November 21 exit polls gave Yushchenko a 6 percent lead: a divergence of 8.8 percent between the results of professionally conducted exit polls and the official vote tally is simply not believable. Suspiciously high voter turnout figures of 96 percent in Yanukovych strongholds in eastern Ukraine point in the same direction, and there were in addition advance indications of an intention among Yanukovych’s partisans to rig the vote. The U.S. and international media have been quick to conclude that the election in Ukraine was stolen—although a dissenting viewpoint has been offered by the British Helsinki Human Rights Group, whose observers expressed skepticism over "the 90% pro-Yushchenko results declared in western Ukraine," and found that Yushchenko’s opposition party "exercised disproportionate control over the electoral process in many places" in central and western Ukraine, giving rise to suspicions that both sides may have falsified the vote. The Helsinki Group claimed, in addition, that the exit polls were invalid, since in at least one city the exit pollsters were open Yushchenko supporters, and were not observing proper methodological protocols (see "Ukraine: 2nd Round").

But what are we to say of the United States, where the same kind of data has encouraged similar suspicions of electoral fraud? George W. Bush was hailed as the winner of the November 2 election, with 51 percent of the vote to John Kerry’s 48 percent. As in Ukraine, however, there are good reasons to be skeptical of the official vote tallies. The last wave of national exit polls published on the evening of November 2—polls which appear to have been duly weighted to correct for sampling imbalances—showed Kerry, not Bush, leading by 51 to 48 percent (see ‘Mystery Pollster’). A divergence of 6 percent between weighted exit polls and the official numbers is a strong indicator of electoral fraud.

At the decisive point, moreover, the divergence between the exit poll results and the vote tally was wider still (see S. Freeman [21 Nov. 2004]). Prior to the election, political analysts identified Florida, Ohio, and Pennsylvania as the three key swing states: the candidate who carried these states, or a majority of them, would win the election.

Bush won Florida, with 52.1 percent of the vote to Kerry’s 47.1 percent. (This tally, by the way, diverges by 4.9 percent in Bush’s favour from the state exit poll, which gave Bush a paper-thin 0.1 percent lead.) Kerry won Pennsylvania, with 50.8 percent of the vote to Bush’s 48.6 percent. (Here again the vote tally differs in Bush’s favour from the exit poll results—this time by 6.5 percent.)

That left Ohio as the deciding state, the one on which the national election results depended. George W. Bush won Ohio, according to the official vote tally, with 51 percent of the vote to John Kerry’s 48.5 percent. The divergence in this case between the vote tally and the exit poll, which showed Kerry as winning by 52.1 percent to Bush’s 47.9 percent, is fully 6.7 percent.

Is it possible that these three divergences in Bush’s favour between exit polls and vote tallies could have occurred by chance? I wouldn’t advise betting on it. Dr. Steven Freeman of the University of Pennsylvania’s Center for Organizational Dynamics has calculated that the odds against these statistical anomalies occurring by chance are 662,000 to 1 (S. Freeman [21 Nov. 2004]).

Or are exit polls perhaps just not as reliable as people think? Dr. Freeman has an answer to this question as well. In the last three national elections in Germany, the differential between the exit polls and the vote tallies was, on average, 0.27 percent; and in the last three elections to the European Parliament, the differential in Germany was 0.44 percent (S. Freeman [21 Nov. 2004]). Professionally conducted exit polls are highly accurate—which is precisely why they are used as a measure of electoral integrity in places where improprieties have been anticipated. The U.S. exit polls were conducted by Mitofsky International, a survey research company founded by Warren J. Mitofsky, who as the company’s website proclaims "created the Exit Poll research model" and "has directed exit polls and quick counts since 1967 for almost 3,000 electoral contests. He has the distinction of conducting the first national presidential exit polls in the United States, Russia, Mexico and the Philippines. His record for accuracy is well known" (see "National Election Pool").

The fact that Mitofsky International systematically altered the U.S. presidential exit poll data early on the morning of November 3, contaminating the exit poll figures by conflating them with the vote tally percentages, has quite rightly become a matter of controversy (see Keefer [5 Nov. 2004], and Olbermann, "Zogby Vs. Mitofsky"). But there seems no reason to doubt that the Mitofsky exit poll data made available by the CNN website on the evening of November 2 was professionally gathered.

Mightn’t one propose, as a last resort, that Bush’s election-winning divergence of 6.7 percent between the Ohio exit poll results and the Ohio vote tally was, at any rate, somewhat less scandalous than Yanukovych’s 8.8 percent? Perhaps so—unless the British Helsinki Group’s doubts about the Ukrainian exit polls turn out to be justified (as similar doubts about improperly conducted exit polls in Venezuela turn out to have been). Yet taking the figures at face value, if stealing elections is like knocking off banks, the fact that one practitioner can dynamite the vault of the central bank and get away with it, while his less fortunate compeer draws unwanted attention by blowing out all of the windows of the neighbourhood Savings-and-Loan, doesn’t make the former any less a bank robber than the latter.

Moreover, the parallels between the Ukrainian and the U.S. presidential elections extend beyond the exit poll divergences. If ballot-box stuffers did indeed achieve a 96 percent turnout in parts of eastern Ukraine, one can deduce that there must have been areas in which the voter turnout figures exceeded 100 percent. There is evidence of similar indiscretions on the part of Bush’s electoral fraud teams. Twenty-nine precincts in a single Ohio county reported more votes cast than there are registered voters—to a cumulative total of over 93,000 votes (see Rockwell). And in six Florida counties the total number of votes reported to have been cast exceeded by wide margins the total number of registered voters (see Newberry).

The question of advance indications of electoral fraud offers a final point of comparison. In the United States, as in Ukraine (where international observers described the polls and vote-counts in previous elections as deeply flawed), electoral fraud was widely anticipated prior to the 2004 presidential election. As the materials itemized in the first three sections of this Reading List make clear, the electronic voting technologies in use in the U.S. were widely denounced by electronic security experts months and even years in advance, as permitting, indeed facilitating, electoral fraud; there is clear evidence that the 2000 election and the 2002 mid-term elections were marked by large-scale fraud on the part of the Bush Republicans; and U.S. computer scientists and informed analysts warned insistently that fraud on an unprecedented scale was likely to occur in this year’s election.

How has it been possible for the massive ironies arising out of the similarities between the elections in the U.S. and Ukraine to pass unobserved in the corporate media? Have the media been simple-mindedly buttering their bread on both sides? If so, it is a habit that makes for messy eating. On November 20, an article in The Washington Post informed those who might question the U.S. election that "Exit Polls Can’t Always Predict Winners, So Don’t Expect Them To" (Morin). Two days later, The Washington Post carried breaking news of the early election results from Ukraine—and quoted a purported election-stealer who holds exactly the same opinion of exit polls: "‘These polls don’t work,’ said Gennady Korzh, a spokesman for Yanukovych. ‘We will win by 3 to 5 percent. And remember, if Americans believed exit polls, and not the actual count, John Kerry would be president’" (see Finn).


ii. Key Issues and Evidence

Mainstream media assessments of the integrity of the 2004 U.S. presidential election have tended to focus on particular and local problems—computer errors or ‘glitches’ for the most part—that came to light on the day of the election or shortly afterwards. Naturally enough, the fact that these problems were noticed, and in some cases corrected, works if anything to enhance public confidence in the integrity of the electoral system.

The stance of the mainstream media is inadequate in at least two respects. First, some of the ‘problems’ were not mere accidents, but open and flagrant violations of democratic principles. Prominent among these was the election-night ‘lockdown’ of the Warren County, Ohio administrative building, on wholly spurious grounds of a ‘terrorist threat’: as a result, the public, the press, and the local legal counsel for the Kerry-Edwards campaign were prevented from witnessing the vote count (see Solvig & Horn, and Olbermann [8 Nov. 2004]). This maneuver generated widespread outrage: Warren County’s Republicans may perhaps have ‘misoverestimated’ the degree to which previous conveniently timed ‘terror alerts’ and Osama bin Laden’s late-October Jack-in-the-Box act had tamed the electorate.

But more importantly, while ‘problems’ and ‘glitches’ have commonly been covered by the corporate media as local issues, they can be recognized as belonging to a larger pattern. As James Paterson’s compelling analysis of The Theft of the 2004 US Election makes clear, Republican intentions were evident well before the election. And as Joseph Cannon has remarked, "An individual problem can be dismissed as a glitch. But when error after error after error favors Bush and not a single ‘accident’ favors Kerry, we’ve left glitch-land."

There is widespread evidence, which goes well beyond any mere accumulation of local problems, that "glitch-land" is indeed far behind us. The landscape to which the 2004 U.S. presidential election belongs includes the murky swamps of Tammany Hall-style election-fixing—and the still more sinister morasses of ‘Jim Crow’ as well.

It has been reported that Republican-controlled counties in Ohio and elsewhere sought to reduce the African-American vote by deliberately curtailing the numbers of polling stations and voting machines in working-class precincts: large numbers of would-be voters were effectively disenfranchised by line-ups that were many hours long (see Fitrakis [7, 16, 22 Nov. 2004]). The Republican Party’s purging of African Americans from voters’ lists gained the 2000 election for George W. Bush (see Conyers [21 Aug. 2001]); as informed observers had anticipated (King & Palast, Palast [1 Nov. 2004]), this shameful illegality was repeated in 2004 on a wider scale. Large-scale polling-station challenges were used to further slow the voting, and to turn the new provisional ballots into a mechanism for effectively disenfranchising minority voters. In the swing state of Ohio this year, it appears that fully 155,000 voters—most of them African-Americans—were obliged as a result of polling-station challenges to cast provisional ballots (see Palast [12 Nov. 2004], Solnit). Although it is becoming clear that the great majority of these citizens were legally entitled to vote (see Williams), the likelihood that their votes will be fairly counted, or that Ohio’s Republican Secretary of State Ken Blackwell will permit them to be included in the official tally, remains slender. The effect of this Jim Crow mechanism appears to be compounded by racially-biased judgments of ballot spoilage. As Greg Palast reports, 54 percent of all ballots judged ‘spoiled’ in the 2000 election in Florida were cast by African-American voters, and similarly scandalous percentages are expected in key states this time round. Nor have African Americans been the sole victims of these tactics: it appears that in New Mexico, where Hispanics’ ballots are five times more likely to be laid aside as ‘spoiled’ than those of white voters, 13,000 Hispanics were effectively disenfranchised by means of provisional ballots (Palast [12 Nov. 2004]). Bush won New Mexico by less than half that number of votes.

But it is the co-presence of other forms of corruption, in addition to all these, that establishes the difference between an election dirtied by illegalities, and one that was not merely soiled and distorted by fraud but actually stolen. The evidence presented within the texts listed here suggests with gathering strength that the Karl Rovian maneuvers alluded to above were supplemented on November 2, 2004 by less conspicuous—and yet decisive—manipulations of the machines that recorded and tabulated the votes.

How precisely this apparent manipulation may have been carried out in different jurisdictions—by rigging machines in advance to mis-record or delete votes, by configuring proprietary software so as to allow ‘back-door’ access for unrestrained vote-tampering, or by hacking into the notoriously insecure vote-tabulation systems—remains as yet undetermined. However, the evidence has been coming to light with surprising rapidity.

As observers and analysts noted at once, troubling discrepancies were apparent between the exit poll results published by CNN on the evening of November 2 and the official vote tallies (see DeHart, Dodge, S. Freeman, Otter, and Simon). No less disturbing, as I observed in my article on the subject, is the fact that the exit poll data was systematically tampered with early on November 3 to make the figures conform to the vote tallies. At 1:41 a.m. EST on November 3, for example, the Ohio exit poll was altered: Kerry, who had previously been shown as leading Bush by 4 percent in that state, was now represented in the revised exit poll as trailing him by 2.5 percent. And yet the number of respondents in the poll had increased from 1,963 to only 2,020. An additional 57 respondents—a 2.8 percent increase—had somehow produced a 6.5 percent swing from Kerry to Bush. At 1:01 a.m. EST on November 3, the Florida exit poll was likewise altered: Kerry, who had previously been shown in a near dead heat with Bush, now trailed him by 4 percent. In this case, the number of respondents rose only from 2,846 to 2,862. A mere 16 respondents—0.55 percent of the total—produced a 4 percent swing to Bush.

However, the key exit-poll issue remains the divergence between the November 2 exit polls and the vote tallies. Steven Freeman concluded, in the first draft of his judicious study of the November 2 exit poll data, that "Systematic fraud or mistabulation is a premature conclusion, but the election’s unexplained exit poll discrepancies make it an unavoidable hypothesis, one that is the responsibility of the media, academia, polling agencies, and the public to investigate" (S. Freeman [11 Nov, 2004]).

Other evidence points toward a strengthening, indeed to a substantial confirmation of this "unavoidable hypothesis" of systematic fraud. Some of this evidence has been emerging from the swing state of North Carolina, and from the two key swing states of Florida and Ohio—either one of which, had John Kerry won it, would have made him the acknowledged President-elect.

In North Carolina, the tell-tale marks of electronic electoral fraud have been brought to light by an analyst who publishes at the Democratic Underground site under the name of ‘ignatzmouse’. ("Ignatz," remember, is the name of the mouse who in the Krazy Kat cartoons smacks the unhappy cat with the inevitable brick. That pesky mouse is once again on target.)

What gives the game away in the North Carolina election data is the disparity within the presidential and senatorial vote-counts between the so-called "absentee" votes—a category that apparently includes the early voting data as well as votes cast by citizens living abroad and military personnel—and the polling-day votes cast on November 2.

In the race for Governor, 30 percent of the votes cast for the Republican and the Democratic candidate alike were absentee votes; the other 70 percent were cast on November 2. The Democrat won with 55.6 percent of both the absentee and the polling-day votes. In most of the other statewide races in the North Carolina election there were similarly close correlations between absentee and polling-day votes. For example, Democrats won the post of Lieutenant Governor, with 55.7 percent of absentee and 55.5 percent of polling-day votes; the post of Secretary of State, with 58 percent of absentee and 57 percent of polling-day votes; and the post of Attorney General, with 56.7 percent of absentee and 55.2 percent of polling-day votes. In three other statewide races, and in the voting for three constitutional amendments, the correlation between absentee and polling-day votes remains very close (though tight races for three other positions in the state administration were won by Republicans with polling-day swings in favour of the Republican candidates of 4.2, 5.2, and 5.4 percent respectively).

Given the close correlations between absentee and polling-day votes in ten of the thirteen statewide races, the senate result looks suspicious: the Democrat’s narrow lead in the absentee voting became a clear defeat on November 2, with a 6.4 percent swing in the polling-day votes to the Republican. And the presidential results look more seriously implausible. In the absentee votes, Kerry trailed by 6 percent, a result that ‘ignatzmouse’ remarks "is consistent with the pre-election polls and most importantly with the exit polls of November 2nd." But in the election day voting, there was a further swing of fully 9 percent to Bush. Bush led in the absentee votes (30 percent of the total) by 52.9 percent to Kerry’s 46.9 percent; but on polling day he took 57.3 percent of the remaining votes, while Kerry received 42.3 percent. In the absence of any other explanation, these figures point to electronic fraud—and, more precisely, to "a ‘date-specific’ alteration in the software, a hack, or a specific [software] activation just prior to the election."

The Florida evidence is, if anything, more flagrant. On November 18, Professor Michael Hout of the University of California at Berkeley released a statistical study indicating that electronic voting technology had produced a very substantial distortion of the presidential vote tally in Florida. According to the analyses conducted by Hout and his team, irregularities associated with electronic voting machines accounted for at least 130,000 votes in Bush’s lead over Kerry in Florida—and possibly twice that much. (The uncertainty stems from the fact that the machines may have awarded Bush "ghost votes" which increased his tally without reducing Kerry’s, or they may have misattributed Kerry votes as Bush votes. As Hout explains, the disparities "amount to 130,000 votes if we assume a ‘ghost vote’ mechanism and twice that—260,000 votes—if we assume that a vote misattributed to one candidate should have been counted for the other.")

Hout’s results have not gone unchallenged (see Strashny); obviously enough, the validity of statistical analyses depends on the extent to which all possible causal factors have been accounted for. But other data indicates that the ‘haunting’ of Florida’s electronic voting tabulators was if anything more serious than Hout and his associates believe. As I have already noted, in six Florida counties the number of votes purportedly cast exceeded the number of registered voters—by a cumulative total of 188,885 (see Newberry). These are apparently "ghost votes," and unless we’re willing to assume a level of electoral participation resembling those claimed by totalitarian states like Ceaucescu’s Romania or Saddam Hussein’s Iraq, a significant percentage of the other votes cast in these counties must also represent the electoral choice not of human beings but of Republican hackers.

Further evidence which may help to identify the agents involved in Florida’s electronic voting fraud has in fact begun to emerge. Brandon Adams, for example, has noted striking divergences among Florida voters according to the makes and models of the voting machines they used in different counties; and a heavy hacking of vote-tabulation systems used in conjunction with the older optical-scan voting machines is now well-established (see Paterson).

Moreover, statistically-based work is being complemented by acquisitions of direct material evidence. In Volusia County, one of Florida’s six most seriously ‘haunted’ counties, where 19,306 more votes were cast than there are registered voters, Bev Harris’s BlackBoxVoting team caught county election officials red-handed on November 16 in the act of trashing original polling-place tapes which BlackBoxVoting had asked for in a Freedom of Information request. In addition to filming the behaviour of county officials, her team was able to establish that some copies of the tapes that officials had prepared to give them in response to the Freedom of Information Act request had been falsified in favour of George W. Bush—in one precinct alone by hundreds of votes (see Harris [18 Nov. 2004], Hartmann [19 Nov. 2004]).

Ohio, remember, was the deciding state. John Kerry conceded the election after calculating that the some 155,000 provisional ballots cast in Ohio would not suffice—even if they were properly counted, and even if, as expected, they were very largely cast by Kerry supporters—to overturn the tallied results, according to which Bush had won the state by 136,483 votes.

However, the exit poll data indicates that it was Kerry who won the state, and by a comfortable margin. Once again, there is substantial evidence of electronic electoral fraud. Teed Rockwell found, after careful study of the Cuyahoga County Board of Elections website, that twenty-nine precincts in this county "reported votes cast IN EXCESS of the number of registered voters—at least 93,136 extra votes total." The same website he studied (http://boe.cuyahogacounty.us/BOE/results/currentresults1.htm#top ) also repays further study, for Rockwell’s tallying of ‘ghost votes’ is in fact conservative. To cite just one example, Brook Park City is listed as having 14,491 registered voters, of whom it is claimed that fully 14,458 exercised their civic duty and cast ballots—for a turn-out rate of 99.4 percent. I leave it to the curious to discover how many of these high-minded but possibly nonexistent citizens supported their incumbent President.

Those who want to pursue the questions of vote fraud and suppression in Ohio may also want to consult the studies carried out by Richard Philips, whose work, together with the data available on the websites of Cuyahoga and other counties, provides depressing evidence of successful vote suppression in urban precincts. (It has been estimated that vote suppression tactics may have cost Kerry 45,000 votes across the whole state of Ohio [see Bernstein].)

The Green Party and Libertarian Party presidential candidates, followed by the Kerry/Edwards campaign, have called for a recount in Ohio. But if Ohio’s Republican Secretary of State Blackwell permits no more than a recount, without a rigorous audit of the electronic voting machines and tabulators as well, the numbers for a reversal of the election results are probably not there. On the optimistic assumption that a fair count of the 155,000 provisional ballots would result in 10 percent of them being disqualified and 70 percent of the remainder being validated as Kerry votes, those ballots might reduce Bush’s lead in Ohio by as much as 55,800 votes. However, it seems unlikely that a recount, including a re-examination of the more than 96,000 Ohio votes (most of them cast on old punch-card machines) that were discarded as spoiled, would turn up the almost 81,000 additional Kerry votes that would still be needed.

Together with the principle that every duly cast vote must be counted, advocates for democracy need to assert another complementary principle: the principle that votes cast not in polling booths, but in the hard drives of voting-tabulation machines; and not by citizens, but rather by ghosts summoned into existence by Republican hackers’ nimble fingers, have no business getting counted, and should be removed from the tally.

The effect of turning a ‘Ghostbuster’ computer-auditing team like Bev Harris’s BlackBoxVoting organization loose on the Ohio results, to carry out a serious audit of any polling precinct and computer-log data that hasn’t already been quietly destroyed, might well be startling. For while a simple recount would probably leave Kerry trailing by several tens of thousands of votes, a thorough computer-audit ‘exorcism’ of the vote tallies, should such a thing ever be permitted, might well lead to a reversal of the national election results.

Whatever the finally certified results may be, a larger informing context should not be forgotten. The regime of George W. Bush has made no secret of its scorn for the American Constitution and Bill of Rights, its hostility to any notion of international law, its contemptuous dismissal of the decent opinion of humankind both at home and abroad, its contempt, in the most inclusive sense, for truth.

Bush has claimed that the 2004 election gave him "capital"—which he now will not hesitate to spend. An early instance of this expenditure has been the assault on the city of Fallujah, and a compounding of the manifold war crimes of which Bush and those who serve him are already guilty.

But what is this "capital"? As the evidence is revealing with growing clarity, the 2004 presidential election was not in fact a victory for Bush, but rather the occasion for an insolent usurpation.

A ‘president’ who takes office through fraud and usurpation can make no legitimate claim to exercise the stolen power of his office.

As the knowledge of his offence becomes ever more widely disseminated, he may yet come "[to] feel his title / Hang loose upon him, like a giant’s robe / Upon a dwarfish thief."


iii. The Reading List: Structure and Contents

This Reading List, a substantially expanded version of previous lists published on 11 and 15 November, has been prepared with the aim of making a wide range of readings on the subject of the integrity—or the lack of integrity—of the recent U.S. presidential election readily available. I have sought to facilitate analytical use of the materials in this revised and expanded list by dividing them into four subject-sections:

1. The Openness of New Voting Technologies to Fraud;

2. Allegations and Evidence of Fraud in Recent U.S. Elections;

3. Advance Warnings of Fraud in the 2004 Presidential Election;

4. Allegations and Evidence of Fraud in the 2004 Presidential Election: The Developing Controversy.

(The November 15 version of this list was divided into five sections, the last of which was devoted to texts making or responding to allegations of a cover-up. In the present version the articles placed there have been merged into the fourth section, which now also incorporates studies and journalistic articles that contest allegations of fraud.)

Section 1 includes writings by computer scientists who have specialized in issues of electronic security, by statisticians who have studied questions of the detection of electoral fraud, and by journalists and activists who have assembled and critically analyzed the opinions of experts.

Section 2 provides some historical context for the present situation by offering a selection of writings in which the evidence of electoral fraud in recent U.S. elections is documented and analyzed.

Section 3 shows how insistently computer scientists, investigative journalists and activists warned during the past two years about the dangers to democracy posed by electronic voting machines which remove the possibility of electoral recounts and audits—and how, despite their warnings, the U.S. entered the 2004 presidential elections equipped with voting-machine systems most of which were demonstrably open both to back-door manipulation and to hacking at the voting tabulator level.

Section 4 lists a wide variety of different texts. These include, most obviously, reports and analyses focusing on specific aspects of the voting and its aftermath, and studies that allege (and in my opinion cumulatively demonstrate) the theft of the presidential election by the Bush-Cheney Republicans and their corporate allies. But I have made a point also of listing writings by scholars who find no compelling grounds for suspecting large-scale or systematic electoral fraud. (See, with respect to the Florida vote tallies, Mebane [8 and 12 Nov. 2004], Sekhon [14 Nov. 2004], Wand, and Strashny—and, on the other side of the debate, Dodge, Dopp, Liddle, Mitteldorf, and Hout.) I have also listed articles by journalists, often writing in mainstream outlets, who have dismissed allegations of electoral fraud as the result of over-hasty or ill-informed analysis, as an expression of conspiracy-theory paranoia, or as mere sour grapes. (See, for example, Corn, A. Freeman, Klein, Manjoo, Morano, Reid, Roig-Franzia & Keating, and Zeller. Critics of the mainstream media coverage include Friedberg, R. Parry [13 Nov. 2004], S. Parry [12 Nov. 2004], Smith and Wade.)

The issues are complex, at some points hotly disputed, and in urgent need of further inquiry and analysis. I would maintain, nonetheless, that the evidence points with cumulative force to the conclusion that the official vote tallies (listed by The New York Times at http://www.nytimes.com/ref/elections2004/2004President.html ), were produced by a massive and sustained project of electoral fraud.

Michael Keefer is an Associate Professor of English at the University of Guelph, and a past president of the Association of Canadian College and University Teachers of English. His publications include Lunar Perspectives: Field Notes from the Culture Wars (Toronto: House of Anansi Press).





1. The Openness of New Voting Technologies to Fraud


Brady, Henry E., Justin Buchler, Matt Jarvis, John McNulty. Counting All the Votes: The Performance of Voting Technology in the United States. 57 pp. Department of Political Science, Survey Research Center, and Institute of Government Studies, University of California, Berkeley (September 2001), http://www.ucdata.berkeley.edu .


Coleridge, Greg. "Closing the Circle: The Corporatization of Elections." The Free Press (17 November 2004), http://www.freepress.org/departments/display/19/2004/875 .


Collier, James M., and Kenneth F. Collier. Votescam: The Stealing of America. Victoria House Press, 1992. ISBN 0963416308.


Collier, Victoria. "Computerized Election Fraud in America: A Brief History." Votescam (25 October 2003), http://www.votescam.com/abriefhistory.php .


"Company Defends Electronic Voting System." Associated Press, The New York Times (25 July 2003), available (thanks to W. R. Mebane) at http://www.macht.arts.cornell.edu/wrm1/gov317/diebold/AP-Electronic-Voting-Flaws.25jul2003.html .


Conover, Bev. "Computerized voting systems cannot be made secure." Online Journal (20 October 2003), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/102003Conover/102003conover.html .

------. "Voting: When low-tech beats high-tech." Online Journal (25 June 2004), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/062504Conover/062504conover.html .


Diebold, Inc. "Technical Response to the Johns Hopkins Study on Voting Systems." 25 July 2003, available (thanks to W. R. Mebane) at http://www.macht.arts.cornell.edu/wrm1/gov317/diebold/technical.25jul2003.htm .


Equal Justice Foundation. Vote Fraud and Election Issues. Last updated 27 September 2004. http://www.ejfi.org/Voting/Voting.htm#fraud .


"Groups Question Voting Machines’ Accuracy." Associated Press (30 October 2003), available (thanks to W. R. Mebane) at http://macht.arts.cornell.edu/wrm1/gov/diebold/AP-Election-Worries.30oct.2003.html .


Halpert, Oscar. "Bev Harris was among the first to raise concerns about touch-screen machines." Verifiedvoting.org (1 June 2004), http://www.verifiedvoting.org/article.php?id=2277 .


Harris, Bev. Black Box Voting: Ballot Tampering in the 21st Century. Renton, WA: Talion Publishing/Black Box Voting, 2003. ISBN 1890916900. Free internet version available at http://www.blackboxvoting.org .

------. "Inside a U.S. Election Vote Counting Program." Scoop (8 July 2003), http://www.scoop.co.nz/mason/stories/HL0307/S00065.htm ; Truthout (July 2003), http://www.truthout.org/docs_03/voting.shtml .

------. "Bald-Faced Lies About Black Box Voting Machines and The Truth About the Rob-Georgia File." Scoop (10 July 2003), http://www.scoop.co.nz/mason/stories/HL0307/S00078.htm .

------. "Internal Memos: Diebold Doing End-Runs Around Certification." Scoop (12 September 2003), http://www.scoop.co.nz/mason/stories/HL0309/S00150.htm .


Internet Policy Institute. Report of the National Workshop on Internet Voting: Issues and Research Agenda. March 2001. 62 pp. Sponsored by the National Science Foundation. Conducted in cooperation with the University of Maryland and hosted by the Freedom Forum. http://www.nsfe-voterprt.pdf .


Jones, Douglas W. "Problems with Voting Systems and the Applicable Standards." Testimony before the U.S. House of Representatives’ Committee on Science, Washington D.C (22 May 2001), http://www.cs.uiowa.edu/~jones/voting .

------. "Auditing elections." Communications of the ACM 47.10 (October 2004): 46-50, http://www.portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=0922594.1022622 .


Kohno, Tadayoshi, Adam Stubblefield, Aviel D. Rubin, and Dan S. Wallach. "Analysis of an Electronic Voting System." IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, Oakland CA, May 2004. http://avirubin.com/vote/analysis/index.html .


Kocher, Paul, and Bruce Schneier. "Insider Risks in Elections." Inside Risks 169, CACM 47, 7 (July 2004), http://www.csl.sri.com/users/neumann/insiderisks04.html .


Konrad, Rachel. "Electronic Voting Firm Drops Legal Case." Associated Press (2 December 2003), available (thanks to W. R. Mebane) at http://macht.arts.cornell.edu/wrm1/gov317/diebold/mherald.diebold.02dec2003.html


Landes, Lynn. "Mission impossible: Federal observers & voting machines." Online Journal (26 November 2002), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/112602Landes/112602landes.html .

------. "Voting machines violate Constitution: Who will launch legal challenge?" Online Journal (15 April 2003), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/041503Landes/041503landes.html .

------. "Offshore company captures online military vote." Online Journal (21 July 2003), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/072103Landes/072103landes.html .

------. "Internet Voting—The End of Democracy?" 27 August 2003. http://www.ecotalk.org/InternetVoting.htm ; Online Journal (4 September 2003), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/090403Landes/090403landes.html .

------. "Republicans and Brits will count California’s recall votes." Online Journal (6 October 2003), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/100603Landes/100603landes.html .

------. "NIST ignores scientific method for voting technology." Online Journal (16 December 2003), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/121603Landes/121603landes.html .


Mebane, Walter R., and Jasjeet S. Sekhon. "Robust Estimation and Outlier Detection for Overdispersed Multinomial Models of Count Data." American Journal of Political Science 48 (April 2004): 391-400, http://www.elections.fas.harvard.edu/index.html .

------, Jasjeet S. Sekhon and Jonathan Wand. "Detecting and Correcting Election Irregularities." Working Paper, 9 October 2003, http://wand.stanford.edu/elections .


Mercuri, Rebecca. Electronic Vote Tabulation: Checks and Balances. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Computer and Information Systems, School of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Pennsylvania, 2001. Available from http://www.umi.com (Thesis # 3003665).

------. Electronic Voting. http://www.notablesoftware.com/evote.html .

------, and Peter G. Neumann. "Verification for Electronic Balloting Systems." Chapter 3 of Secure Electronic Voting, ed. Dimitris Gritzalis. Advances in Information Security, vol. 7. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002. ISBN 1402073011.


Norr, Henry. "The Risks of Touch-Screen Balloting." San Francisco Chronicle (4 December 2000), http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2000/12/04/BU91811.DTL .


Rubin, Aviel. "Testimony, U.S. Election Assistance Commission. Dr. Aviel Rubin, Professor of Computer Science, May 5, 2004." http://avirubin.com/vote .


Saltman, Roy G. Accuracy, Integrity, and Security in Computerized Vote-Tallying. NBS Special Publication 500-158. Institute for Computer Sciences and Technology, National Bureau of Standards. Gaithersburg, MD 20899, August 1988. http://www.itl.nist.gov/lab/specpubs/500-158.htm .


Schneier, Bruce. Applied Cryptography. 2nd edition. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1996. ISBN 0471128457 (Paper: 0471117099).

------. "Voting and Technology." Crypto-Gram Newsletter (15 December 2000), http://www.schneier.com/crypto-gram-0012.html .


Schwartz, John. "Report Raises Electronic Vote Security Issues." The New York Times (25 September 2003), available (thanks to W. R. Mebane) at http://macht.arts.cornell.edu/wrm1/gov317/diebold/25VOTE.25sep2003.html .

------. "File Sharing Pits Copyright Against Free Speech." The New York Times (3 November 2003), available (thanks to W. R. Mebane) at http://macht.arts/cornell.edu/wr,1/gov317/diebold/03secure.03nov2003.html .


Sludge, C. D. " Sludge Report #154: Bigger Than Watergate! How to Rig an Election in the United States." Scoop (8 July 2003), http://www.scoop.co.nz/mason/stories/HL0307/S00064.htm .


Thompson, Alastair. "Diebold Internal Mail Confirms U.S. Vote Count Vulnerabilities." Scoop (12 September 2003), http://www.scoop.co.nz/mason/stories/HL0309/S00106.htm .


Thompson, Ken. "Reflections on Trusting Trust." Communications of the ACM 27.8 (August 1984): 761-63. http://www.acm.org/classics/sep95 .


Wand, Jonathan N. A., Jasjeet S. Sekhon, and Walter R. Mebane, Jr. "A Comparative Analysis of Multinomial Voting Irregularities: Canada 2000." Proceedings of the American Statistical Society (2001), http://wand.stanford.edu/elections/canada/parliament .


Williams, Britain J. "Security in the Georgia Voting System." 23 April 2003, available at http://macht.arts.cornell.edu/wrm1/gov317/diebold/index.html .


Zetter, Kim. "Time to Recall E-Vote Machines?" Wired News (6 October 2003), http://www.wired.com/news/politics/0,1283,60713,00.html?tw=wn_story_related .

------. "Aussies Do It Right: E-Voting." Wired News (3 November 2003), http://www.wired.com/news/ebiz/0,1272,61045,00.html .

------. "E-Voting Undermined By Sloppiness." Wired News (17 December 2003), http://www.wired.com/news/evote/0,2645,61637,00.html?tw=wn_story_related .

------. "E-Vote Still Flawed, Experts Say." Wired News (29 January 2004), http://www.wired.com/news/business/0,1367,62109.00,html .




2. Allegations and Evidence of Fraud in Recent U.S. Elections


Collier, James M., and Kenneth F. Collier. Votescam: The Stealing of America. Victoria House Press, 1992. ISBN 0963416308.


Collier, Victoria. "Your stolen vote—the missing piece of the puzzle." May 2000; republished by Online Journal (8 February 2001), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/020801Collier/020801collier.html .

------. "Computerized Election Fraud in America: A Brief History." VoteScam (25 October 2003), http://www.votescam.com/abriefhistory.php .


Conover, Bev. "Once again, the media try to con the people into believing Bush won." Online Journal (5 April 2001), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/040501Conover/040501conover.html .

------. "Florida’s ‘fixed it’ farce." Online Journal (11 May 2001), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/051101Conover/051101conover.html .


Conyers, John Jr., and Democratic Investigative Staff, House Committee on the Judiciary. How to Make Over One Million Votes Disappear: Electoral Sleight of Hand in the 2000 Presidential Election. A Fifty-State Report Prepared for Rep. John Conyers, Jr. (Ranking Member, House Committee on the Judiciary; Dean, Congressional Black Caucus. 122 pp. Washington, DC: U.S. House of Representatives, August 20, 2001. http://www.electionreport.pdf .


Equal Justice Foundation. Vote Fraud and Election Issues. Last updated 27 September 2004. http://www.ejfi.org/Voting/Voting.htm#fraud .


Gumbel, Andrew. "All the President’s votes? A quiet revolution is taking place in U.S. politics. By the time it’s over, the integrity of elections will be in the unchallenged, unscrutinised control of a few large—and pro-Republican—corporations. Andrew Gumbel wonders if democracy in America can survive." The Independent (13 October 2003), http://www.news.independent.co.uk/world/americas/story.jsp?story=452972 ; also available at Common Dreams News Center, http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/103301.htm .


Harris, Bev. Black Box Voting: Ballot Tampering in the 21st Century. Renton, WA: Talion Publishing/Black Box Voting, 2003. ISBN 1890916900. Free internet version available at http://www.blackboxvoting.org .

------. "Bald-Faced Lies About Black Box Voting Machines and The Truth About the Rob-Georgia File." Scoop (10 July 2003), http://www.scopp.co.nz/mason/stories/HL0307/S00078.htm .


Landes, Lynn. "2002 elections: Republican voting machines, election irregularities, and ‘way-off’ polling results." Online Journal (8 November 2002), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/110802Landes/110802landes.html .

------. Election Fraud and Irregularities—BY YEAR. http://www.ecotalk.org/VotingMachineErrors.htm .


Mercuri, Rebecca. "Florida 2002: Sluggish Systems, Vanishing Votes." Inside Risks 149, CACM 45, 11 (November 2002), http://www.csl.sri.com/users/neumann/insiderisks.html#149 .


Zetter, Kim. "Did E-Vote Firm Patch Election?" Wired News (13 October 2003), http://www.wired.com/news/politics/0,1283,60563,00.html?tw=wn_story_related .




3. Advance Warnings of Fraud in the 2004 Presidential Election


Allen, David. "Inside An E-Voting Whitewash Conference Call." Scoop (23 August 2003), http://www.scoop.co.nz/mason/stories/HL0308/S00175.htm .


Boyle, Alan. "E-voting firm reports computer break-in." MSNBC (29 December 2003), http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/3825143 .


CalTech/MIT Voting Technology Project. "Immediate Steps to Avoid Lost Votes in the 2004 Presidential Election: Recommendations for the Election Assistance Commission." July 2004. http://www.vote.caltech.edu/Reports/index.html .


"Electronic Frontier Foundation and Stanford Law Clinic Sue Electronic Voting Machine Company: Student Publishers and ISP Aim to Stop Diebold’s Abusive Copyright Claims." Electronic Frontier Foundation Media Release (3 November 2003), http://www.eff.org/legal/ISP_liability/OPG_v_Diebold/20031103_eff_pr.php .


Fitrakis, Bob. "Diebold, electronic voting and the vast right-wing conspiracy." The Free Press (24 February 2004), http://www.freepress.org/columns/display/3/2004/834 .

------. "Death of a patriot: no more." The Free Press (17 March 2004), http://www.freepress.org/columns/display/3/2004/853 .

------. "E-Voting: The new battle hymn of the republic." Online Journal (11 September 2004), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/091104Fitrakis/091104fitrakis.html .

------, and Harvey Wasserman. "Diebold’s Political Machine." MotherJones.com (5 March 2004), http://www.motherjones.com/commentary/columns/2004/03/03_200.html .

------, and Harvey Wasserman. "Twelve ways Bush is now stealing the Ohio vote." The Free Press (27 October 2004), http://www.freepress.org/departments/display/19/2004/810 .


Goodman, Amy, et al. "Will Bush Backers Manipulate Votes to Deliver GW Another Election?" Democracy Now! (4 September 2003), available at Common Dreams News Center, http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/0904-10.htm .


Gumbel, Andrew. "Mock the vote." Los Angeles City Beat (29 October 2003), available at http://www.wesjones.com/mockthevote.htm .

------. "All the President’s votes? A quiet revolution is taking place in U.S. politics. By the time it’s over, the integrity of elections will be in the unchallenged, unscrutinised control of a few large—and pro-Republican—corporations. Andrew Gumbel wonders if democracy in America can survive." The Independent (13 October 2003), http://www.news.independent.co.uk/world/americas/story.jsp?story=452972 ; also available at Common Dreams News Center, http://www.commondreams.org/headlines03/1033-01.htm .

------. "Portrait of a Country on the Verge of a Nervous Breakdown." The Independent (24 October 2004), also available at Common Dreams News Center, http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/1024-01.htm .


Hales, Paul. "’Civil disobedience’ campaign targets Diebold: Students threaten freedom to manipulate elections." The Inquirer (22 October 2003), http://www.theinquirer.net/?article==12261 .


Harris, Bev. "Voting industry insiders hold secret meeting to hire PR firm to sell electronic voting to public." Online Journal (26 August 2003), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/082604Harris/082604harris.html .


Hartmann, Thom. "If You Want to Win an Election, Just Control the Voting Machines." Common Dreams News Center (31 January 2003). http://www.commondreams.org/views03/0131-01.htm ; Scoop (31 January 2003), http://www.scoop.co.nz/mason/stories/HL0302/S00009.htm ; Online Journal (6 February 2003), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/020603Hartmann/020603hartmann.html .

------. "A Winning Machine." AlterNet (4 February 2003), http://www.alternet.org/story/15103 .

------. "Now your vote is the property of a private corporation." SmirkingChimp.com (11 March 2003), http://www.smirkingchimp.com/print.php?sid=10536 ; Online Journal (13 March 2003), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/031303Hartmann/031303hartmann.html .

------. The Theft of Your Vote is Just a Chip Away." AlterNet (30 July 2003), http://www.alternet.org/story/16474 .


"How George W. Bush Won the 2004 Presidential Election." Infernal Press (25 June 2003), http://www.infernalpress.com/Columns/election.html ; Centre for Research on Globalization (15 July 2003), http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/INF307A.html .


Jones, Douglas W. "E-voting: Are our defenses adequate to defend citizens rights?" Paper presented to the International Telecommunications Union Workshop on Challenges, Perspectives and Standardization Issues in E-government, Geneva, Switzerland (6 June 2003), http://www.cs.uiowa.edu/~jones/voting/geneva .

------. "The Diebold AccuVote TS Should be Decertified." ESENEX Security Symposium, Washington DC (6 August 2003), http://www.cs.uiowa.edu/~jones/voting/dieboldusenix.html .

------. "Recommendations for the Conduct of Elections in Miami-Dade County Using the ES&S iVotronic System." 13 May 2004, revised 7 June 2004. http://www.csuiowa/~jones/voting .

------, David L. Dill, Peter G. Neumann, Aviel Rubin, Dan Wallach. "To the concerned citizens and elected officials of the State of Ohio." 26 February 2004, http://www.cs.uiowa.edu/~jones/voting .


"Journalist [Lynn Landes] seeks temporary restraining orders against use of voting machines & absentee ballots." Online Journal (18 October 2004), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/101804NewsFlash/101804newsflash.html .


King, Martin Luther III, and Greg Palast. "Jim Crow Revived in Cyberspace." The Baltimore Sun (8 May 2003); also available at http://www.gregpalast.com/detail.cfm?artid=222&row=1 .


Landes, Lynn. "Voting machine fiasco: SAIC, VoteHere and Diebold." Online Journal (20 August 2003), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/082003Landes/082003landes.html .

------. Voting Systems Orgs and Companies. http://www.ecotalk.org/VotingMachineCompanies.htm .

------. "Democrats send mixed signals in voting technology debate." Online Journal (29 January 2004), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/012904Landes/012904landes.html .

------. "Questions mount over New Hampshire’s primary." Online Journal (11 February 2004), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/021104Landes/021104landes.html .

------. "Faking democracy: Americans don’t vote, machines do, & ballot printers can’t fix that." Online Journal (2 April 2004), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/040704Landes/040704landes.html .

------. "Two voting companies and two brothers will count 80 percent of U.S. election using both scanners & touchscreens." Online Journal (28 April 2004), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/042804Landes/042804landes.html .

------. "Federal commission nixes talk of paper-only elections; stacks panels with proponents of paperless touchscreens." Online Journal (12 May 2004), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/051204Landes/051204landes.html .

------. "Could the Associated Press rig the election?" Online Journal (23 October 2004), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/102304Landes/102304landes.html .

------. "If this election is stolen, will it be by enough to stop a recount?" Online Journal (31 October 2004), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/103104Landes/103104landes.html .


Leopold, Jason. "Electronic voting minus paper trails makes it easy to rig elections." Online Journal (4 September 2003), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/090403Leopard/090403leopard.html .


Mercuri, Rebecca. Press Release (24 September 2002): "MIT vs. Mercuri. Rebecca Mercuri rebuts recent MIT/CalTech voting systems analysis and calls for moratorium on new electronic balloting equipment purchases." http://www.notablesoftware.com/Papers/MITvsMercuri.html .


Moore, Steve. "E-Democracy: Stealing the Election in 2004." Global Outlook 8 (Summer 2004); Centre for Research on Globalization (11 July 2004), http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/MOO407A.html .


"On Election Day 2004, How Will You Know If Your Vote Is Properly Counted? Answer: You Won’t. NJ Rep. Rush Holt Introduces Legislation to Require All Voting Machines To Produce A Paper Trail." OpEdNews (n.d.), http://www.opednews.com/holt%20paper%20balloy%20bill.htm .


Palast, Greg. "Florida Computers Snatch Thousands of Votes from Kerry." Truthout (26 October 2004), http://www.truthout.org/docs_04/102904X.shtml ; also published under the title "Florida’s Computers Have Already Counted Thousands of Votes for George W. Bush." Common Dreams News Center (28 October 2004), http://www.commondreams.org/head;ines04/1028-02.htm .

------. "Electoral Fraud, Ethnic Cleansing of Voter Rolls, An Election Spoiled Rotten." TomPaine.com (1 November 2004), http://www.tompaine.com ; Centre for Research on Globalization (4 November 2004), http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/PAL411A.html .


Pitt, William Rivers. "Desperate Measures." Truthout (20 October 2004), http://www.truthout.org/docs_04/102004A.shtml .


Plissner, Martin. "Exit polls to protect the vote." The New York Times (17 October 2004), http://www.nytimes.com/2004/10/17/weekinreview/plis.html ; also available at Bellaciao.org (7 November 2004), http://bellaciao.org/en/article.php3?id_article=4196 .


Redman, Colleen. "Voting machine voodoo: Democracy at risk." Online Journal (19 November 2003), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/111903Redman/111903redman.html .


Schulte, Brigid. "Maryland Voting System’s Security Challenged: Electronic Cheating Too Easy, Study Shows." The Washington Post (25 July 2003), available (thanks to W. R. Mebane) at http://macht.arts.cornell.edu/wrm1/gov317/diebold/A42928-2003jul24 .

------. "Maryland Plans Fixes After Vote System is Faulted." The Washington Post (25 September 2003), available (thanks to W. R. Mebane) at http://www.macht.arts.cornell.edu/wrm1/gov317/diebold/A60825-2003Sep24 .


Slashdot file of stories (dating from July 2003 to October 2004) about electronic voting machines, Diebold Incorporated, and free speech issues. The file includes the following stories:

"Maryland Tests Voting Machines, Declares Success" (posted 22 October 2004)

"Diebold Rejected in Copyright Takedown Attempt" (posted 10 October 2004)

"Chimp Can Hack Diebold Electronic Voting System" (posted 24 September 2004)

"More Diebold E-Voting Vulnerabilities" (posted 22 September 2004)

"California AG Says He’ll Sue Diebold" (posted 7 September 2004)

"No Secret Ballot for Military Personnel?" (posted 4 September 2004)

"Vote Tabulator Security Hole Exposed" (posted 30 August 2004)

"Australian Voting Software Goes Closed Source" (posted 4 August 2004)

"Diebold Sued (Again) Over Shoddy Voting Machines" (posted 12 July 2004)

"Who’s Blocking Verified E-Voting?" (posted 11 June 2004)

"Feds to Open BlackBoxVoting User Logs?" (posted 19 May 2004)

"Indian Voting Machines Compared with Diebold" (posted 14 May 2004)

"California County Sues State Over E-Vote Ban" (posted 9 May 2004)

"Evoting in the News" (posted 7 May 2004)

"CA Secretary of State Bans Diebold Machines" (posted 1 May 2004)

http://slashdot.org/search.p?query=diebold&op=stories&author=tid=&section=&sort=1 .


Sludge, C. D. "Sludge #156: SAIC Connected to E-Voting Whitewash." Scoop (23 August 2003), http://www.scoop.co.nz/mason/stories/HL0308/S00173.htm .

------. "Sludge Report #157: The ITAA, The Election Center, & Doug Lewis." Scoop (23 August 2003), http://www.scoop.co.nz/mason/stories/HL0308/S00174.htm .


Sperry, Mac. "Stopping the vote theft—urgent—drop all else." Online Journal (25 October 2003), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/102503Sperry/102503sperry.html .


Stroh, Michael. "Defects detected in voting machines: Hopkins researchers say Maryland’s electronic terminals are vulnerable to hackers." The Baltimore Sun (24 July 2003), available (thanks to W. R. Mebane) at http://macht.arts.cornell.edu/wrm1/gov317/diebold/A42928-2003jul24 .


Zeller, Tom. "Ready or Not (and Maybe Not), Electronic Voting Goes National." The New York Times (19 September 2004); Truthout (20 September 2004), http://www.truthout.org/docs_04/092004L.shtml .




4. Allegations and Evidence of Fraud in the 2004 Presidential Election


"Academia still fixated on November 2." Associated Press (19 November 2004), http://www.cnn.com/2004/ALLPOLITICS/11/19/election.aftermath.ap/index.html .


Adams, Brandon. An Examination of the 2004 Elections. 7 November 2004, updated 10 November 2004. This site includes the following items:

"President Bush given greater preference than Republican Senate candidate in all but two counties in Florida"

"Total Votes Cast Outnumber Voter Turnout in Florida"

"Floridan Votes, Sorted by Voting Technology"

"Floridan Votes, Sorted by Machine Vendor"

"Floridan Votes, Sorted by Voting Machine Model"

"Percentage of Candidate’s Votes Contributed by Model." http://www.electionexamination.blogspot.com .


Azulay, Jessica. "Amid Charges of Vote Suppression, Activists Look for Larger Fraud." ZNet (13 November 2004), http://www.zmag.org/content/showarticle.cfm?SectionID=90&ItemID=6638 .


"Berkeley Researchers Report ‘Unexplained Discrepancy’ in FLA Vote Totals. Study released Thursday indicates the probability is that electronic voting machines may have awarded 130,000-260,000 or more in excess votes to Bush in Florida." Buzzflash (18 November 2004), http://www.buzzflash.com/analysis/04/11/ana04028.html .


Bernstein, David S. "Questioning Ohio: No controversy this time? Think again." The Boston Phoenix (12-18 November 2004), http://www.bostonphoenix.com/boston/news_features/other_stories/multi-page/documents/04256171.asp .


Buchanan, Wyatt. "If It’s Too Bad to be True, It May Not be Voter Fraud. Most statistical enigmas in recent election have logical explanations, despite Web rants." San Francisco Chronicle (11 November 2004); also available at http://www.verifiedvoting.org/article.php?id=5239 .


Burns, Margie. "Dirty work at Philly polls." OpEdNews (15 November 2004), http://www.opednews.com/burns_111504_philly_polls.htm .


Byrne, John. "Kerry seen as presidential victor in early exit polls." The Blue Lemur (2 November 2004, 3:15 p.m.), http://www.bluelemur.com/index.php?p=386 .

------. "Odds of Bush gaining by 4 percent in all exit polling states 1 in 50,000; Evoting/paper variance not found to be significant." The Blue Lemur (8 November 2004), http://www.bluelemur.com/index.php?p=405 .


CalTech/MIT Voting Technology Project. "Voting Machines and the Underestimate of the Bush Vote." Version 2 (11 November 2004), available at http://www.verifiedvoting.org/article.php?id=5243 .


Cannon, Joseph. "The empire strikes back: Data and disinformation." Cannonfire (12 November 2004), http://www.cannonfire.blogspot.com/2004/11/empire-strikes-back-data-and.html .


Cardinale, Matthew. "A Genealogy of Votergate Media Coverage 2004: Through the Eyes of Googlenews." OpEdNews (10 November 2004), http://www.opednews.com/cardinale_111004_votergate_media.htm .


Chin, Larry. "The Stolen Election of 2004: welcome back to hell." Online Journal (5 November 2004), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/110504Chin/110504chin.html ; Centre for Research on Globalization (5 November 2004), http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/CHI411B.html .


Cohen, Ariella. "Voter Suppression Challenged by Ohioans, Allies." The New Standard (25 November 2004), http://newstandardnews.net/content/?action=show_item&itemid=1249 .


Cohn, Marjorie. "Litigating the Election." Truthout (22 November 2004), http://www.truthout.org/docs_04/112204A.shtml .


"Computer error at voting machine gives Bush 3,893 extra votes." Akron Beacon Journal (5 November 2004), http://www.ohio.com/mld/beaconjournal/news/state/10103910.htm?1c .


"Computer glitch still baffles county clerk." News-Dispatch (4 November 2004), http://www.michigancitym.com/articles/2004/11/04/news02.txt .


"Computer May Have Lost 4,500 N.C. Votes." Guardian Unlimited (4 November 2004), http://www.guardian.co.uk/uslatest/story/0,1282,-459634,4,00.html .


Conover, Bev. "We Wuz Robbed… Again!" Online Journal (12 November 2004), http://www.onlinejournal.com/Commentary/111204Conover/111204conover.html .


"Conservatives rail against MSNBC’s Olbermann for reporting election irregularities." Media Matters for America (16 November 2004), http://www.mediamatters.org/items/printable/200411160006 .


Conyers, John Jr., Jerrold Nadler, Robert Wexler (Members of the Congress of the United States, House of Representatives). "Letter to GAO Comptroller Walker Requesting Investigation of Voting Machines and Technologies Used in 2004 Election." 5 November 2004. http://www.house.gov/conyers .


Conyers, John Jr., Jerrold Nadler, Robert Wexler, Robert C. Scott, Melvin Watt, Rush Holt (Members of the Congress of the United States, House of Representatives). "Follow-up Letter to GAO Comptroller Walker Requesting Investigation of Voting Machines and Technologies Used in 2004 Election." 8 November 2004. http://www.house.gov/conyers .


Corn, David. "Going Down the Stolen Election Road?" The Nation (10 November 2004), available at Alternet, http://www.alternet.org/election04/20458 .


"Countinghouse blues: Too many votes." 6 News Omaha: WOWT.com (n.d.), http://www.wowt.com/news/headlines/1161971.html .


Crampton, Thomas. "Global monitors find faults." International Herald Tribune (3 November 2004), http://www.iht.com/bin/print_ipub.php?file=articles/2004/11/02/news/observe.html .


‘DavidAdmin.’ "Answers to Boston Globe’s Dismissal of Voter Fraud Story." ReDefeatBush (11 November 2004), http://www.redefeatbush.com/modules.php?name=News&file=article&sid=284 .


DeHart, Sara S. "Something is Rotten in Denmark: Exit poll data in former Soviet Republic of Georgia vs. USA." Online Journal (17 November 2004), http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/111704DeHart/111704dehart.html .


Dodge, David. "Response to MIT/Caltech." Ustogether.org (13 November 2004), http://ustogether.org/election04/dodge/MIT_Caltech_rebutal_11-13-04.htm .


Dopp, Kathy. "Surprising Pattern of Florida’s Election Results." Ustogether.org (3 November 2004, with later updates), http://www.ustogether.org/Florida_Election.htm . For further analysis and graphic representation of Kathy Dopp’s data, see http://www.ustogether.org/election04/FloridaDataStats.htm , and http://www.rubberbug.com/temp/Florida2004chart.htm .


Drobny, Sheldon. "Votergate 2004: We Don’t Need Paper to Prove Fraud, But We Do Need Money and Leadership, NOW." OpEdNews (9 November 2004), http://www.opednews.com/drobny_110904_election_investigation.htm ; Centre for Research on Globalization (10 November 2004), http://www.globalresearch.ca/articles/DRO411A.html .


Election Problem Reports. "Stolen Election Library—With Hundreds of Links." National Ballot Integrity Project (17 November 2004), http://www.ballotintegrity.org/DCForumID1/174.html .


Evans, Shaula. "Republican Election Theft Clearinghouse [Updated 11/12]." BOPNews (12 November 2004), http://www.bopnews.com/archives/002328.html .

------. "Outside eye: Dems Abroad Election Fraud Report." BOPNews (12 November 2004), http://www.bopnews.com/archives/002420.html#2420 .


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